Sinop History

Where Does the Name of Sinop Come From ?: The settlement history of the city of Sinop started with the first Bronze Age. B.C. Established as a Hellenistic Colony in the 7th century, Sinop was the most important city of the Black Sea in Antiquity. One of the capitals of the Pontus State, which wanted to combine the local cultures of Anatolia with the Hellenistic and Persian cultures in the Hellenistic period, was Sinop. During the Byzantine period, the region became Hellenized in language and culture with the influence of Orthodox Christianity.
Sinop, BC. In 70, the Romans, MS. It came under the rule of the Byzantines in 395, the Seljuks on 3 October 1214, and the Ottomans in 1461.
Sinop was included in the second degree priority provinces in development in 1972. The first large-scale industrial establishment is Ayancık Lumber Factory. Other important industrial establishments are Şiş Cam Factory, Flour Industry, Söksa, İç Underwear Örme Ve Konfeksiyon AŞ. and brick and tile factories in the soil industry. Ayancık linen, Boyabat circle weaving, wooden cut model making and wooden handwork are the most rooted handicrafts in Sinop.
The first library was built in 1924 by Dr. It was founded under the leadership of Rıza Nur.

SINOP BEFORE HISTORY:  Sinop is in the region called "Paflagonya" in the first era. It played an important role in maritime trade between the northern coast of Anatolia and the Crimean peninsula. It is an important natural harbor.
In 1953, the excavations carried out in Kocagöz mound (when excavated, often unearthed old building remains and antiquities, flat - wide area and a small depth of earth hill) and the surveys conducted by the Museum Directorate in 1987 and 1988, the prehistoric periods have come to light. .
During the excavations in the Karagöz mound, finds belonging to the First Bronze Age 1st period (3000-2700 BC) were unearthed. The material found shows the relationship between Sinop, Balkans and Central Anatolia.
As a result of the survey, many prehistoric settlements were found in the vicinity. These settlements spread inland along the coast, along river mouths and river valleys. The material uncovered is generally dated to the Early Bronze Age 1 and the Early Bronze Age 2. However, two settlements dating to the Early Chalcolithic (4500 BC) years were found in the Kabalı stream valley. Today, the oldest settlement area around Sinop is determined as Kabalı Stream Valley. The mounds were abandoned in a terrible fire at the beginning of EBA 2 on the coast. After that, no settlement is encountered on the mounds.

SINOP IN THE HITITE ERA: No artifacts were found to document the Hittite period in Sinop during the excavations carried out between 1952-1954. Although the existence of Gashka tribes in the Black Sea is mentioned in the Hittite texts, no finds have been found in the Sinop region until now.
During the survey conducted, only the Er Hitit (1800 BC) material was found in Köşkhöyük, Gerze district, on the coastline. However, no material from the Hittite Empire period was found. After that, materials belonging to the year 756 can be found. There is no information about the Sinop coastline between (2700-1800 BC) and (1800-756 BC).

B.C. SINOP IN THE EARLY 1000 BC : Immigrants who left Miletus in 756 and wanted to establish a new city came here and laid the foundation of today's Sinop and named this city Sinope. “According to the legend, the goddess Sinope is the daughter of the river god. Zeus falls in love with Sinope. He promises to do whatever he wishes. Sinope asks her not to touch her maiden. She abides by the oath of God, leaving him a girl. It comes to where Sinop is today. "
Then BC. In 630, a second group of colonies (colonial, immigrant community or the place where this community settled) settled in Sinop. It is estimated that the walls of the city were probably built during the colonized periods.
At the beginning of the 7th century, Sinop was invaded by the Cimmerians who came to Anatolia from the north, and the Persians from Iran in the middle of the 6th century.

SINOP IN THE HELENISTIC PERIOD:  BC. In the first half of the 4th century, the Paphlagonians declared their independence. B.C. Taking advantage of Alexander the Great's entrance to Anatolia in 332, Ariarathes I declared his independence in Cappadocia and took Sinop under his rule. B.C. In 302, Mitridat Ktistes brought together the scattered principalities in Paphlagonia and established a strong state (an independent country and its entity). Then ll. Mitridat and his son Farnak dominated Sinop. B.C. In 169, Mitridat Flapeton became the head of the state. Mitridat Flapaton made Sinop prosperous (it has been worked on for its development and beauty) and brought its capital from Amasya to Sinop.
Sinop's heyday was during the time of Mitridat Fatpator. The Romans of Mitirdat, who dominated the entire Black Sea, established a great empire by expelling them from Anatolia, but moved their capital from Sinop to Bergama.
The Hellenistic period is the brightest time of Sinop, and great importance was attached to culture during this period.

SINOP IN THE ROMAN PERIOD: BC. In 70, the Roman Empire reorganized these lands it occupied. By dividing the Pontus Kingdom from Kızılırmak into two, he gave the administration of the eastern part to the local dynasties and made the western part directly into the state of the state.
Sinop's passing under Roman rule is an important turning point in history. Especially (above all, above all) apart from financial aid, new Roman colonies were sent to the city in the time of Cesar and it was ensured to expand and grow.

SINOP IN THE BYZANTINE ERA: Sinop, which remained in the Eastern Roman lands with the division of the Roman Empire into two, gradually began to shrink. In this period when Christianity was developing, trade and culture in the city declined due to some religious events. The most important Byzantine work built in Sinop during this period is the Balatlar Church.

CONQUEST OF SINOP AND THE SELJUK ERA: When Istanbul was seized (by force) during the 4th Crusade in 1204 and the Byzantine Empire dissolved, Sinop remained in the hands of the Trabzon State. The Trabzon State, which gave taxes to the Seljuks who settled in Central Anatolia, took advantage of an internal uprising of the Seljuks, and cut the tax and started to oppress and rape the people of Sinop.
Upon the complaint of the people of Sinop to Konya, Sultan Izzettin Keykavus sent orders to all the provincial governors who had a living and informed them to participate in the war. The enemy, who was not aware of the preparation and the way of departure of the army with a great force, captured Tekfur, which was hunting with 500 horsemen near Sinop, and the captured Tekfur was brought in front of the castle 3 days later and Sinop was asked to surrender.
The people who did not want to surrender before handed the keys of the castle to the Seljuks on October 3, 1214, provided that Tekfur would not be killed, no one would be killed and everyone could go wherever they wanted.

SINOP IN TURKISH ADMINISTRATION: In  Sinop, which was reconstructed completely after the Seljuk rule, first Pervaneoğulları and then Candaroğulları continued Turkish rule.
When the Anatolian principalities started to join the Ottoman Empire, which started to develop and grow in the 15th century, Candaroğlu declared his loyalty to the Ottomans in İsmail Bey, and thus Sinop came under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
Shipbuilding continued in the shipyard in Sinop, which is used as a port city, in this period.
During the Ottoman-Russian wars of 1853, the city was burned by cannon balls and after this date, the city got smaller and retreated into the castle.
On the way to Samsun on the Bandırma ferry, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk stopped by Sinop Port to cross over to Anatolia on 18 May 1919, but continued his journey by ship since there was no road between Sinop and Samsun at that time.
Sinop was affiliated to Canik Livas, whose center was Samsun as an administrative organization, became a starboard to Kastamonu after the declaration of the Tanzimat, and in 1924 it was separated from Kastamonu and turned into a province.

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